Mitotyping Technologies - The clear choice for forensic mitochondrial DNA and STR analysis.

Accredited for human identity testing by ASCLD/LAB since 2001 and permitted in forensic identity by New York State.

We are also permitted in the area of forensic identity by the New York State Department of Health.

We recover mtDNA from over 95.5% of hairs.

Please see our January 2005 publication in Journal of Forensic Sciences about our five years of casework experience with hair analysis. Our protocols for working with degraded DNA give us a superior recovery rate for mtDNA in challenged samples.

A good basic mitochondrial DNA bibliography
Below is a short list of interesting and seminal articles on mitochondrial DNA. For the most comprehensive list available (over 1,000 articles), we recommend that you visit
Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MHL, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJH, Staden R, and Young IG (1981) Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290:457-465.

Aquadro CF, and Greenberg BD (1983) Human mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution: analysis of nucleotide sequences from seven individuals. Genetics 103:287-312.

Boom R, Sol CJA, Salimans MMM, Jansen CL, Wertheim-van Dillen PME, and Van der Noordaa J (1990) Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28:495-503.

Budowle B, Adams DE, Comey CT, and Merrill CR (1990) Mitochondrial DNA: a possible genetic material suitable for forensic analysis. In: HC Lee and Gaensslen RE (eds), Advances in Forensic Sciences. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp 76-97.

Cann RL, Stoneking M, and Wilson AC (1987) Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325:31-36.
Carelli, V. (2015) Keeping in shape the dogma of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PLOS Genetics DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen 1005179. 
Carrecedo A et al. (2000)  DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: Guidelines for mitochondrial DNA typing.  Forensic Science International 110:79-85.

Clayton DA (1992) Structure and function of the mitochondrial genome. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Diseases 15:439-447.
Eichmann C and Parson W. (2007)  Molecular characterization of the canine mitochondrial DNA control region for forensic applications.  International Journal of Legal Medicine 121:411-416.
Giles RE, Blanc H, Cann HM, and Wallace DC (1980) Maternal inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 77:6715-6719.

Ginther C, Issel-Tarver L, and King MC (1992) Identifying individuals by sequencing mitochondrial DNA from teeth. Nature Genetics 2:135-138.

Higuchi R, von Beroldingen CH, Sensabaugh GF and Erlich HA (1988) DNA typing from single hairs. Nature 332:543-546.

Holland MM and Parsons TJ (1999) Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis: validation and use for forensic casework. Forensic Science Review 11:21-50.

Holland MM, Fisher DL, Mitchell LG, Rodriquez WC, Canik JJ, Merril CR, and Weedn VW (1993) Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of human skeletal remains: identification of remains from the Vietnam War. Journal of Forensic Sciences 38:542-553.

Höss M and Pääbo S (1993) DNA extraction from Pleistocene bones by a silica-based purification method. Nucleic Acids Research 21:3913-3914.
Isenberg AR and Moore JM (1999) Mitochondrial DNA analysis at the FBI Laboratory. Forensic Science Communications 1(2),

Krings M, Stone A, Schmitz RW, Krainitzki H, Stoneking M, and Pääbo S (1997) Neanderthal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell 90:19-30.
Linch CA, Whiting DA, and Holland MM. (2000)  Human hair histogenesis for the mitochondrial DNA forensic scientist. Journal of Forensic Sciences 46:844-853. 
Loreille OM, Diegoli TM, Irwin JA, Coble MD and Parsons TJ.  (2007)  High efficiency DNA extraction from bone by total demineralization.  Forensic Science International 1: 191-195.
Melton T, Holland C, and Holland M. (2012) Forensic mitochondrial DNA: current practice and future potential. Forensic Science Review 24:110-122. 
Melton T, and Holland C. (2007) Routine forensic use of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene for species identification. Journal of Forensic Sciences 52: 1305-1307.
Melton T, Dimick G, Higgins B, Lindstrom L, and Nelson, K (2005) Forensic mitochondrial DNA analysis of 691 casework hairs.  Journal of Forensic Sciences 50:73-80.
Melton T (2004) Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy.  Forensic Science Review 16:1-20.
Merriwether DA, Rothhammer F, and Ferrell RE (1994) Genetic variation in the New World: ancient teeth, bone, and tissue as sources of DNA. Experientia 50:592-601.

Pääbo S, Gifford JA, and Wilson AC (1988) Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain. Nucleic Acids Research 16:9775-9778.
Parson W, and Dür A.  (2007)  EMPOP-A forensic mtDNA database.  Forensic Sciences International: Genetics 1:88-92. 
Piercy R, Sullivan KM, Benson N, and Gill P (1993) The application of mitochondrial DNA typing to the study of white Caucasian genetic identification. International Journal of Legal Medicine 106:85-90.
Pyle A, Hudson G, Wilson IJ, Coxhead J, Smertenko T, Herbert M, Santibanez-Koref M, and Chinnery P (2015) Extreme-depth re-sequencing of mitochondrial DNA finds no evidence of paternal transmission in humans.  PLOS Genetics DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005040. 

Sigurðardóttir S, Helgason A, Gulcher JR, Stefansson K, and Donnelly P (2000) The mutation rate in the human mtDNA control region. American Journal of Human Genetics 66:1599-1609.

Stoneking M (1994) Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 26:251-259.

Sullivan KM, Hopgood R, and Gill P (1992) Identification of human remains by amplification and automated sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. International Journal of Legal Medicine 105:83-86.

Vigilant L, Pennington R, Harpending H, Kocher TD, and Wilson AC (1989) Mitochondrial DNA sequences in single hairs from a southern African population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 86:9350-9354.

Wallace DC (1994) Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in human evolution and disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 91:8739-8746.

Wilson MR, Stoneking M, Holland MM, DiZinno JA, and Budowle B (1993) Guidelines for the use of mitochondrial DNA sequencing in forensic science. Crime Laboratory Digest 20:68-77.

Wilson MR, DiZinno JA, Polanskey D, Replogle J, and Budowle B (1995) Validation of mitochondrial DNA sequencing for forensic casework analysis. International Journal of Legal Medicine 108:68-74.

Wilson MR, Polanskey D, Butler J, DiZinno JA, Replogle J, and Budowle B (1995) Extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from human hair shafts. Biotechniques 18:662-669.

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Mitotyping Technologies - The clear choice for forensic mitochondrial DNA and STR analysis.